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pseudo-classes

Summary

Dynamic pseudo-classes classify elements on characteristics other than their name, attributes, or content, in principle characteristics that cannot be deduced from the document tree.

PageSummary
:target pseudo-class selectorThe :target pseudo-class (note the “:”) represents an element in the current document, if any, that has id attribute set to a name that is matching the fragment identifier of the current URI.
:-ms-input-placeholder
:checkedThe :checked selector applies to toggable elements (e.g. radio buttons or checkboxes) that are toggled on.
:disabled
:empty
:enabled
:first-childThe :first-child pseudo-class matches an element that is the first child element of some other element.
:first-of-type
:focusThe :focus pseudo-class applies while an element has the focus, i.e. accepts keyboard or mouse events, or other forms of input.
:in-rangeThe :in-range pseudo selector selects input elements when their value is within a specified range.
:indeterminate
:invalid
:lang©The :lang© pseudo selector applies to documents that specifies the lang attribute to an HTML element. This allows to style based on which language (and/or dialect) a given section is written into.
:last-of-type
:nth-child(n)
:nth-last-child(n)
:nth-last-of-type(n)
:nth-of-type(n)
:only-child
:only-of-type
:optional
:required
:root
:valid

Usage

 A CSS pseudo-class is a keyword added to selectors that specifies a special state of the element to be selected. For example :hover will apply a style when the user hovers over the element specified by the selector.

Pseudo-classes, together with pseudo-elements, let you apply a style to an element not only in relation to the content of the document tree, but also in relation to external factors like the history of the navigator (:visited, for example), the status of its content (like :checked on some form elements), or the position of the mouse (like :hover which lets you know if the mouse is over an element or not).

Examples

/* unvisited links */
a:link
/* visited links */
a:visited
/* user hovers */
a:hover
/* active links */
a:active

An example of combining dynamic pseudo-classes:

a:focus
a:focus:hover

The last selector matches a elements that are in the pseudo-class :focus and in the pseudo-class :hover.

Note: An element can be both ‘:visited’ and ‘:active’ (or ‘:link’ and ‘:active’).

Attributions

  • Mozilla Developer Network cc-by-sa-small-wpd.svg: Article